White Papers

White Paper: In-line refractive index (RI) measurements are the technique of choice for qualifying the hydrogen peroxide content in CMP slurries. However, peroxide content is not the only slurry metric of interest. Typically, slurries are delivered from the manufacturer in concentrated form, then diluted with water and peroxide at the fab. Though slurry density is a critical parameter for CMP performance, incoming density can vary from batch to batch.

White Paper: Refractive index measurements have established themselves as the technique of choice for qualifying peroxide content in slurries for CMP of tungsten. Many emerging process flows use CMP as a critical tool for building circuit structures, dramatically increasing the number of CMP steps — and thus the number of opportunities for yield loss if slurry composition deviates from the specification.

Inline refractive index measurements have established themselves as the technique of choice for detecting faults in the CMP slurry blending and dispense systems of leading fabs. Refractive index, a continuous, non-sampling measurement, helps fabs identify slurry composition changes quickly.

White Paper: In-coming chemical quality has been left to the chemical suppliers. Semiconductor fabricators have very limited or no capability to detect problems with process chemistries from their suppliers. It was found that product is exposed to any incoming chemical changes, no matter what the cause, supplier, mechanical or human. In fact it can be said that the product is used as a monitoring method for the chemicals. This paper will discuss a variety of different monitoring methodologies; suggest the best practices for a cost efficient application for a wide variety of semiconductor chemistries.